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JavaScript继承

我试图在javascript中实现继承。我想出了以下最小代码来支持它。

function Base(){
    this.call = function(handler, args){
      handler.call(this, args);
    }
}

Base.extend = function(child, parent){
    parent.apply(child);
    child.base = new parent;
    child.base.child = child;
}

专家,请告诉我这是否足够或我可能错过的任何其他重要问题。根据面临的类似问题,请提出其他更改建议。

这是完整的测试脚本:

function Base(){
    this.call = function(handler, args){
      handler.call(this, args);
    }
    this.superalert = function(){
        alert('tst');
    }
}

Base.extend = function(child, parent){
    parent.apply(child);
    child.base = new parent;
    child.base.child = child;
}

function Child(){
    Base.extend(this, Base);
    this.width = 20;
    this.height = 15;
    this.a = ['s',''];
    this.alert = function(){
        alert(this.a.length);
        alert(this.height);
    }
}

function Child1(){
    Base.extend(this, Child);
    this.depth = 'depth';
    this.height = 'h';
    this.alert = function(){
        alert(this.height); // display current object height
        alert(this.a.length); // display parents array length
        this.call(this.base.alert); 
          // explicit call to parent alert with current objects value
        this.call(this.base.superalert); 
          // explicit call to grandparent, parent does not have method 
        this.base.alert(); // call parent without overriding values
    }
}

var v = new Child1();
v.alert();
alert(v.height);
alert(v.depth);
80
hungryMind

要在 ECMAScript 5中实现javascript继承 您可以定义对象的原型并使用Object.create继承。您还可以根据需要添加/覆盖属性。

例:

/**
 * Transform base class
 */
function Transform() {
    this.type = "2d";
}

Transform.prototype.toString = function() {
    return "Transform";
}

/**
 * Translation class.
 */
function Translation(x, y) {
    // Parent constructor
    Transform.call(this);

    // Public properties
    this.x = x;
    this.y = y;
}

// Inheritance
Translation.prototype = Object.create(Transform.prototype);

// Override
Translation.prototype.toString = function() {
    return Transform.prototype.toString() + this.type + " Translation " + this.x + ":" + this.y;
}

/**
 * Rotation class.
 */
function Rotation(angle) {
    // Parent constructor
    Transform.call(this);

    // Public properties
    this.angle = angle;
}

// Inheritance
Rotation.prototype = Object.create(Transform.prototype);

// Override
Rotation.prototype.toString = function() {
    return Transform.prototype.toString() + this.type + " Rotation " + this.angle;
}

// Tests
translation = new Translation(10, 15);

console.log(translation instanceof Transform); // true
console.log(translation instanceof Translation); // true
console.log(translation instanceof Rotation); // false

console.log(translation.toString()) // Transform2d Translation 10:15
137
Lorenzo Polidori

我认为Crockfords解决方案太复杂了,John也是如此。获得javascript继承比它们似乎描述的要简单得多。考虑:

//Classes
function A() {
    B.call(this);
}

function B() {
    C.call(this);
    this.bbb = function() {
        console.log("i was inherited from b!");
    }
}

function C() {
    D.call(this);
}

function D() {
    E.call(this);
}

function E() {
    //instance property 
    this.id = Math.random()
}

//set up the inheritance chain (order matters) 
D.prototype = new E();
C.prototype = new D();
B.prototype = new C();
A.prototype = new B();

//Add custom functions to each
A.prototype.foo = function() {
    console.log("a");
};
B.prototype.bar = function() {
    console.log("b");
};
C.prototype.baz = function() {
    console.log("c");
};
D.prototype.wee = function() {
    console.log("d");
};
E.prototype.woo = function() {
    console.log("e");
};

//Some tests
a = new A();
a.foo();
a.bar();
a.baz();
a.wee();
a.woo();
console.log(a.id);
a.bbb();
console.log(a instanceof A);
console.log(a instanceof B);
console.log(a instanceof C);
console.log(a instanceof D);
console.log(a instanceof E);​
var b = new B();
console.log(b.id)

我在 我的博客上写了上述解决方案的完整描述

42
Marcosc

当我玩JS对象时,我找到了一个更简约的解决方案:-)享受!

function extend(b,a,t,p) { b.prototype = a; a.apply(t,p); }

function A() {
    this.info1 = function() {
        alert("A");
    }
}

function B(p1,p2) {
    extend(B,A,this);
    this.info2 = function() {
        alert("B"+p1+p2);
    }
}

function C(p) {
    extend(C,B,this,["1","2"]);
    this.info3 = function() {
        alert("C"+p);
    }
}


var c = new C("c");
c.info1(); // A
c.info2(); // B12
c.info3(); // Cc
12
Jan Turoň

这是最简单的,我希望在JS中理解继承的最简单方法。这个例子最有用的是PHP程序员。

function Mother(){
    this.canSwim = function(){
        console.log('yes');
    }
}

function Son(){};
Son.prototype = new Mother;
Son.prototype.canRun = function(){
    console.log('yes');
}

现在儿子有一个被覆盖的方法和一个新的方法

function Grandson(){}
Grandson.prototype = new Son;
Grandson.prototype.canPlayPiano = function(){
    console.log('yes');
};
Grandson.prototype.canSwim = function(){
    console.log('no');
}

现在孙子有两个被覆盖的方法和一个新方法

var g = new Grandson;
g.canRun(); // => yes
g.canPlayPiano(); // => yes
g.canSwim(); // => no
8
Alexander Serkin

为什么不使用对象而不是函数:

var Base = {
    superalert : function() {
        alert('tst');
    }
};

var Child = Object.create(Base);
Child.width = 20;
Child.height = 15;
Child.a = ['s',''];
Child.childAlert = function () {
        alert(this.a.length);
        alert(this.height);
    }

var Child1 = Object.create(Child);
Child1.depth = 'depth';
Child1.height = 'h';
Child1.alert = function () {
    alert(this.height);
    alert(this.a.length);
    this.childAlert();
    this.superalert();
};

并称之为:

var child1 = Object.create(Child1);
child1.alert();

这种方法比功能更清晰。我发现这个博客解释了为什么继承函数不是在JS中做到这一点的正确方法: http://davidwalsh.name/javascript-objects-deconstruction

编辑

var Child也可以写成:

var Child = Object.create(Base, {
    width : {value : 20},
    height  : {value : 15, writable: true},
    a : {value : ['s', ''], writable: true},
    childAlert : {value : function () {
        alert(this.a.length);
        alert(this.height);
    }}
});
4
Luka Blažecki

这是我的解决方案,它基于 Lorenzo Polidori's答案 中描述的标准原型继承方法。

首先,我首先定义这些辅助方法,这些方法使事情更容易理解,以后更易读:

Function.prototype.setSuperclass = function(target) {
    // Set a custom field for keeping track of the object's 'superclass'.
    this._superclass = target;

    // Set the internal [[Prototype]] of instances of this object to a new object
    // which inherits from the superclass's prototype.
    this.prototype = Object.create(this._superclass.prototype);

    // Correct the constructor attribute of this class's prototype
    this.prototype.constructor = this;
};

Function.prototype.getSuperclass = function(target) {
    // Easy way of finding out what a class inherits from
    return this._superclass;
};

Function.prototype.callSuper = function(target, methodName, args) {
    // If methodName is ommitted, call the constructor.
    if (arguments.length < 3) {
        return this.callSuperConstructor(arguments[0], arguments[1]);
    }

    // `args` is an empty array by default.
    if (args === undefined || args === null) args = [];

    var superclass = this.getSuperclass();
    if (superclass === undefined) throw new TypeError("A superclass for " + this + " could not be found.");

    var method = superclass.prototype[methodName];
    if (typeof method != "function") throw new TypeError("TypeError: Object " + superclass.prototype + " has no method '" + methodName + "'");

    return method.apply(target, args);
};

Function.prototype.callSuperConstructor = function(target, args) {
    if (args === undefined || args === null) args = [];

    var superclass = this.getSuperclass();
    if (superclass === undefined) throw new TypeError("A superclass for " + this + " could not be found.");

    return superclass.apply(target, args);
};

现在,您不仅可以使用SubClass.setSuperclass(ParentClass)设置类的超类,还可以使用SubClass.callSuper(this, 'functionName', [argument1, argument2...])调用重写的方法:

/**
 * Transform base class
 */
function Transform() {
    this.type = "2d";
}

Transform.prototype.toString = function() {
    return "Transform";
}

/**
 * Translation class.
 */
function Translation(x, y) {
    // Parent constructor
    Translation.callSuper(this, arguments);

    // Public properties
    this.x = x;
    this.y = y;
}
// Inheritance
Translation.setSuperclass(Transform);

// Override
Translation.prototype.toString = function() {
    return Translation.callSuper(this, 'toString', arguments) + this.type + " Translation " + this.x + ":" + this.y;
}

/**
 * Rotation class.
 */
function Rotation(angle) {
    // Parent constructor
    Rotation.callSuper(this, arguments);

    // Public properties
    this.angle = angle;
}
// Inheritance
Rotation.setSuperclass(Transform);

// Override
Rotation.prototype.toString = function() {
    return Rotation.callSuper(this, 'toString', arguments) + this.type + " Rotation " + this.angle;
}

// Tests
translation = new Translation(10, 15);

console.log(translation instanceof Transform); // true
console.log(translation instanceof Translation); // true
console.log(translation instanceof Rotation); // false

console.log(translation.toString()) // Transform2d Translation 10:15

不可否认,即使使用辅助函数,这里的语法也很尴尬。值得庆幸的是,在ECMAScript 6中添加了一些语法糖( maximally minimal classes )以使事情变得更漂亮。例如。:

/**
 * Transform base class
 */
class Transform {
  constructor() {
    this.type = "2d";
  }

  toString() {
    return "Transform";
  } 
}

/**
 * Translation class.
 */
class Translation extends Transform {
  constructor(x, y) {
    super(); // Parent constructor

    // Public properties
    this.x = x;
    this.y = y;
  }

  toString() {
    return super(...arguments) + this.type + " Translation " + this.x + ":" + this.y;
  }
}

/**
 * Rotation class.
 */
class Rotation extends Transform {
  constructor(angle) {
    // Parent constructor
    super(...arguments);

    // Public properties
    this.angle = angle;
  }

  toString() {
    return super(...arguments) + this.type + " Rotation " + this.angle;
  }
}

// Tests
translation = new Translation(10, 15);

console.log(translation instanceof Transform); // true
console.log(translation instanceof Translation); // true
console.log(translation instanceof Rotation); // false

console.log(translation.toString()) // Transform2d Translation 10:15

请注意,此时ECMAScript 6仍处于草案阶段,据我所知,并未在任何主要Web浏览器中实现。但是,如果您希望可以使用 Traceur编译器 之类的东西来编译ECMAScript 6到简单的基于ECMAScript 5的JavaScript。您可以看到使用Traceur here 编译的上述示例。

3
Ajedi32
//This is an example of how to override a method, while preserving access to the original.
//The pattern used is actually quite simple using JavaScripts ability to define closures:

    this.somefunction = this.someFunction.override(function(args){
        var result = this.inherited(args);
        result += this.doSomethingElse();
        return result;
    });

//It is accomplished through this piece of code (courtesy of Poul Krogh):

/***************************************************************
    function.override overrides a defined method with a new one, 
    while preserving the old method.
    The old method is only accessible from the new one.
    Use this.inherited() to access the old method.
***************************************************************/

    Function.prototype.override = function(func)
    {
        var remember = this;
        var f = function() 
        {
             var save = this.inherited; 
             this.inherited = remember;
             var result = func.apply(this, Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments));
             this.inherited = save;
             return result;
        };
        return f;
    }
2
Lars Christensen

虽然我同意上述所有答案,但我认为JavaScript不一定是面向对象的(避免继承),而是 基于对象的方法 在大多数情况下应该足够了。

我喜欢这种方式 Eloquent JavaScript 启动它 第8章 关于面向对象编程谈论OO。而不是破译实现继承的最佳方式,更多的精力应该用于学习JavaScript的功能方面,因此,我发现 第6章 关于函数式编程,更有趣。

2
Sutikshan Dubey

基本的原型继承

在JavaScript中进行继承的一种简单但有效的方法是使用以下两行:

B.prototype = Object.create(A.prototype);
B.prototype.constructor = B;

这类似于这样做:

B.prototype = new A();

两者之间的主要区别在于A的构造函数在使用 Object.create 时不会运行,这更直观,更类似于基于类的继承。

在创建A的新实例时,您总是可以选择运行B的构造函数,方法是将其添加到B的构造函数中:

function B(arg1, arg2) {
    A(arg1, arg2); // This is optional
}

如果你想将B的所有参数传递给A,你也可以使用 Function.prototype.apply()

function B() {
    A.apply(this, arguments); // This is optional
}

如果你想将另一个对象混合到B的构造函数链中,你可以将Object.createObject.assign 结合起来:

B.prototype = Object.assign(Object.create(A.prototype), mixin.prototype);
B.prototype.constructor = B;

演示

function A(name) {
  this.name = name;
}

A.prototype = Object.create(Object.prototype);
A.prototype.constructor = A;

function B() {
  A.apply(this, arguments);
  this.street = "Downing Street 10";
}

B.prototype = Object.create(A.prototype);
B.prototype.constructor = B;

function mixin() {

}

mixin.prototype = Object.create(Object.prototype);
mixin.prototype.constructor = mixin;

mixin.prototype.getProperties = function() {
  return {
    name: this.name,
    address: this.street,
    year: this.year
  };
};

function C() {
  B.apply(this, arguments);
  this.year = "2018"
}

C.prototype = Object.assign(Object.create(B.prototype), mixin.prototype);
C.prototype.constructor = C;

var instance = new C("Frank");
console.log(instance);
console.log(instance.getProperties());

创建自己的包装器

如果您不喜欢在整个代码中编写大致相同的双线程,您可以编写一个基本的包装函数,如下所示:

function inheritance() {
  var args = Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments);
  var firstArg = args.shift();
  switch (args.length) {
  case 0:
    firstArg.prototype = Object.create(Object.prototype);
    firstArg.prototype.constructor = firstArg;
    break;
  case 1:
    firstArg.prototype = Object.create(args[0].prototype);
    firstArg.prototype.constructor = firstArg;
    break;
  default:
    for(var i = 0; i < args.length; i++) {
      args[i] = args[i].prototype;
    }
    args[0] = Object.create(args[0]);
    var secondArg = args.shift();
    firstArg.prototype = Object.assign.apply(Object, args);
    firstArg.prototype.constructor = firstArg;
  }
}

这个包装器的工作原理:

  1. 如果传递一个参数,它的原型将继承自Object
  2. 如果传递两个参数,第一个原型将继承第二个参数。
  3. 如果传递两个以上的参数,第一个原型将继承第二个参数,其他参数的原型将被混合。

演示

function inheritance() {
  var args = Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments);
  var firstArg = args.shift();
  switch (args.length) {
  case 0:
    firstArg.prototype = Object.create(Object.prototype);
    firstArg.prototype.constructor = firstArg;
    break;
  case 1:
    firstArg.prototype = Object.create(args[0].prototype);
    firstArg.prototype.constructor = firstArg;
    break;
  default:
    for(var i = 0; i < args.length; i++) {
      args[i] = args[i].prototype;
    }
    args[0] = Object.create(args[0]);
    var secondArg = args.shift();
    firstArg.prototype = Object.assign.apply(Object, args);
    firstArg.prototype.constructor = firstArg;
  }
}

function A(name) {
  this.name = name;
}

inheritance(A);

function B() {
  A.apply(this, arguments);
  this.street = "Downing Street 10";
}

inheritance(B, A);

function mixin() {

}

inheritance(mixin);

mixin.prototype.getProperties = function() {
  return {
    name: this.name,
    address: this.street,
    year: this.year
  };
};

function C() {
  B.apply(this, arguments);
  this.year = "2018"
}

inheritance(C, B, mixin);

var instance = new C("Frank");
console.log(instance);
console.log(instance.getProperties());

注意

Object.create可以安全地用于每个现代浏览器,包括IE9 +。 Object.assign在IE的任何版本中都不起作用,也不适用于某些移动浏览器。如果你想使用它们并支持不实现它们的浏览器,建议使用 polyfillObject.create和/或Object.assign

你可以找到Object.create这里 的一个polyfill和Object.assignhere

1
John Slegers

这个简单的方法怎么样?

    function Body(){
        this.Eyes = 2;
        this.Arms = 2;
        this.Legs = 2;
        this.Heart = 1;
        this.Walk = function(){alert(this.FirstName + ' Is Walking')};
    }

    function BasePerson() {
        var BaseBody = new Body(this);
        BaseBody.FirstName = '';
        BaseBody.LastName = '';
        BaseBody.Email = '';
        BaseBody.IntroduceSelf = function () { alert('Hello my name is ' + this.FirstName + ' ' + this.LastName); };
        return BaseBody;
    }

    function Person(FirstName,LastName)
    {
        var PersonBuild = new BasePerson();
        PersonBuild.FirstName = FirstName;
        PersonBuild.LastName = LastName;
        return PersonBuild;
    }

    var Person1 = new Person('Code', 'Master');
    Person1.IntroduceSelf();
    Person1.Walk();
1
CodeMilian
//
//  try this one:
//  
//    function ParentConstructor() {}
//    function ChildConstructor()  {}
//
//    var 
//        SubClass = ChildConstructor.xtendz( ParentConstructor );
//
Function.prototype.xtendz = function ( SuperCtorFn ) {

    return ( function( Super, _slice ) {

                // 'freeze' Host fn 
                var
                    baseFn = this, 
                    SubClassCtorFn;

                // define child ctor
                SubClassCtorFn = function ( /* child_ctor_parameters..., parent_ctor_parameters[] */ ) {

                    // execute parent ctor fn on Host object
                    // pass it last ( array ) argument as parameters
                    Super.apply( this, _slice.call( arguments, -1 )[0] );

                    // execute child ctor fn on Host object
                    // pass remaining arguments as parameters
                    baseFn.apply( this, _slice.call( arguments, 0, -1 ) );

                };

                // establish proper prototype inheritance
                // 'inherit' methods
                SubClassCtorFn.prototype = new Super;

                // (re)establish child ctor ( instead of Super ctor )
                SubClassCtorFn.prototype.constructor = SubClassCtorFn;

                // return built ctor
                return SubClassCtorFn;

    } ).call( this, SuperCtorFn, Array.prototype.slice );
};

// declare parent ctor
function Sup( x1, x2 ) {
    this.parent_property_1 = x1;
    this.parent_property_2 = x2;
}

// define some methods on parent
Sup.prototype.hello = function(){ 
   alert(' ~  h e l l o   t h e r e  ~ ');
};


// declare child ctor
function Sub( x1, x2 ) {
    this.child_property_1 = x1;
    this.child_property_2 = x2;
}

var
    SubClass = Sub.xtendz(Sup), // get 'child class' ctor
    obj;

// reserve last array argument for parent ctor
obj = new SubClass( 97, 98, [99, 100] ); 

obj.hello();

console.log( obj );
console.log('obj instanceof SubClass      -> ', obj instanceof SubClass      );
console.log('obj.constructor === SubClass -> ', obj.constructor === SubClass );
console.log('obj instanceof Sup           -> ', obj instanceof Sup           );
console.log('obj instanceof Object        -> ', obj instanceof Object        );

//
//  Object {parent_property_1: 99, parent_property_2: 100, child_property_1: 97, child_property_2: 98}
//  obj instanceof SubClass      -> true
//  obj.constructor === SubClass -> true
//  obj instanceof Sup           -> true
//  obj instanceof Object        -> true
//
0
public override