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如何从命令行重置USB设备?

是否可以重置USB设备的连接,而无需从PC上物理断开/连接?

具体来说,我的设备是数码相机。我正在使用gphoto2,但最近我得到“设备读取错误”,所以我想尝试对连接进行软件重置。

据我所知,没有为相机加载内核模块。唯一看起来相关的是usbhid

156
cmcginty

将以下内容另存为usbreset.c

/* usbreset -- send a USB port reset to a USB device */

#include <stdio.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <sys/ioctl.h>

#include <linux/usbdevice_fs.h>


int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
    const char *filename;
    int fd;
    int rc;

    if (argc != 2) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Usage: usbreset device-filename\n");
        return 1;
    }
    filename = argv[1];

    fd = open(filename, O_WRONLY);
    if (fd < 0) {
        perror("Error opening output file");
        return 1;
    }

    printf("Resetting USB device %s\n", filename);
    rc = ioctl(fd, USBDEVFS_RESET, 0);
    if (rc < 0) {
        perror("Error in ioctl");
        return 1;
    }
    printf("Reset successful\n");

    close(fd);
    return 0;
}

在终端中运行以下命令:

  1. 编译程序:

    $ cc usbreset.c -o usbreset
    
  2. 获取要重置的USB设备的总线和设备ID:

    $ lsusb  
    Bus 002 Device 003: ID 0fe9:9010 DVICO  
    
  3. 使我们编译的程序可执行:

    $ chmod +x usbreset
    
  4. 使用Sudo权限执行程序;通过运行lsusb命令找到<Bus><Device> id的必要替换:

    $ Sudo ./usbreset /dev/bus/usb/002/003  
    

上述计划的来源: http://marc.info/?l=linux-usb&m=121459435621262&w=2

112
Li Lo

我之前没有发现自己处于特定情况,所以我不确定它是否足够,但我发现重置USB设备的最简单方法是这个命令:(无需外部应用程序)

Sudo sh -c "echo 0 > /sys/bus/usb/devices/1-4.6/authorized"
Sudo sh -c "echo 1 > /sys/bus/usb/devices/1-4.6/authorized"

这是我用来重置我的Kinect的实际的一个,因为libfreenect似乎没有让它重新入睡的API。它位于我的Gentoo盒子上,但内核应该足够新,以便为sysfs使用相同的路径结构。

您显然不会是1-4.6但是您可以从内核日志(dmesg)中提取该设备路径,或者您可以使用类似lsusb的内容来获取供应商和产品ID,然后使用这样的快速命令列出路径的相关关系到不同的供应商/产品ID对:

for X in /sys/bus/usb/devices/*; do 
    echo "$X"
    cat "$X/idVendor" 2>/dev/null 
    cat "$X/idProduct" 2>/dev/null
    echo
done
55
ssokolow

这将重置所有USB1/2/3连接端口[1]:

for i in /sys/bus/pci/drivers/[uoex]hci_hcd/*:*; do
  [ -e "$i" ] || continue
  echo "${i##*/}" > "${i%/*}/unbind"
  echo "${i##*/}" > "${i%/*}/bind"
done

我相信这会解决你的问题。如果您不想重置所有USB端点,可以使用/sys/bus/pci/drivers/ehci_hcd中的相应设备ID


注意:[1]:*hci_hcd内核驱动程序通常控制USB端口。 ohci_hcduhci_hcd用于USB1.1端口,ehci_hcd用于USB2端口,xhci_hcd用于USB3端口。 (见 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Host_controller_interface_(USB,_Firewire)

46
Tamás Tapsonyi

我需要在python脚本中自动执行此操作,因此我调整了LiLo对以下内容非常有帮助的答案:

#!/usr/bin/env python
import os
import sys
from subprocess import Popen, PIPE
import fcntl
driver = sys.argv[-1]
print "resetting driver:", driver
USBDEVFS_RESET= 21780

try:
    lsusb_out = Popen("lsusb | grep -i %s"%driver, Shell=True, bufsize=64, stdin=PIPE, stdout=PIPE, close_fds=True).stdout.read().strip().split()
    bus = lsusb_out[1]
    device = lsusb_out[3][:-1]
    f = open("/dev/bus/usb/%s/%s"%(bus, device), 'w', os.O_WRONLY)
    fcntl.ioctl(f, USBDEVFS_RESET, 0)
except Exception, msg:
    print "failed to reset device:", msg

在我的情况下,它是cp210x驱动程序(我可以从lsmod | grep usbserial告诉),因此您可以将上面的代码段保存为reset_usb.py,然后执行以下操作:

Sudo python reset_usb.py cp210x

如果你的系统上还没有c编译器设置,但你确实有python,这可能也会有所帮助。

9
Peter

我已经创建了一个Python脚本,根据这里的答案简化了整个过程。

将以下脚本保存为reset_usb.py或clone 此repo

用法:

python reset_usb.py help  # Show this help
Sudo python reset_usb.py list  # List all USB devices
Sudo python reset_usb.py path /dev/bus/usb/XXX/YYY  # Reset USB device using path /dev/bus/usb/XXX/YYY
Sudo python reset_usb.py search "search terms"  # Search for USB device using the search terms within the search string returned by list and reset matching device
Sudo python reset_usb.py listpci  # List all PCI USB devices
Sudo python reset_usb.py pathpci /sys/bus/pci/drivers/.../XXXX:XX:XX.X  # Reset PCI USB device using path /sys/bus/pci/drivers/.../XXXX:XX:XX.X
Sudo python reset_usb.py searchpci "search terms"  # Search for PCI USB device using the search terms within the search string returned by listpci and reset matching device

脚本:

#!/usr/bin/env python
import os
import sys
from subprocess import Popen, PIPE
import fcntl

instructions = '''
Usage: python reset_usb.py help : Show this help
       Sudo python reset_usb.py list : List all USB devices
       Sudo python reset_usb.py path /dev/bus/usb/XXX/YYY : Reset USB device using path /dev/bus/usb/XXX/YYY
       Sudo python reset_usb.py search "search terms" : Search for USB device using the search terms within the search string returned by list and reset matching device
       Sudo python reset_usb.py listpci : List all PCI USB devices
       Sudo python reset_usb.py pathpci /sys/bus/pci/drivers/.../XXXX:XX:XX.X : Reset PCI USB device using path
       Sudo python reset_usb.py searchpci "search terms" : Search for PCI USB device using the search terms within the search string returned by listpci and reset matching device       
       '''


if len(sys.argv) < 2:
    print(instructions)
    sys.exit(0)

option = sys.argv[1].lower()
if 'help' in option:
    print(instructions)
    sys.exit(0)


def create_pci_list():
    pci_usb_list = list()
    try:
        lspci_out = Popen('lspci -Dvmm', Shell=True, bufsize=64, stdin=PIPE, stdout=PIPE, close_fds=True).stdout.read().strip().decode('utf-8')
        pci_devices = lspci_out.split('%s%s' % (os.linesep, os.linesep))
        for pci_device in pci_devices:
            device_dict = dict()
            categories = pci_device.split(os.linesep)
            for category in categories:
                key, value = category.split('\t')
                device_dict[key[:-1]] = value.strip()
            if 'USB' not in device_dict['Class']:
                continue
            for root, dirs, files in os.walk('/sys/bus/pci/drivers/'):
                slot = device_dict['Slot']
                if slot in dirs:
                    device_dict['path'] = os.path.join(root, slot)
                    break
            pci_usb_list.append(device_dict)
    except Exception as ex:
        print('Failed to list pci devices! Error: %s' % ex)
        sys.exit(-1)
    return pci_usb_list


def create_usb_list():
    device_list = list()
    try:
        lsusb_out = Popen('lsusb -v', Shell=True, bufsize=64, stdin=PIPE, stdout=PIPE, close_fds=True).stdout.read().strip().decode('utf-8')
        usb_devices = lsusb_out.split('%s%s' % (os.linesep, os.linesep))
        for device_categories in usb_devices:
            if not device_categories:
                continue
            categories = device_categories.split(os.linesep)
            device_stuff = categories[0].strip().split()
            bus = device_stuff[1]
            device = device_stuff[3][:-1]
            device_dict = {'bus': bus, 'device': device}
            device_info = ' '.join(device_stuff[6:])
            device_dict['description'] = device_info
            for category in categories:
                if not category:
                    continue
                categoryinfo = category.strip().split()
                if categoryinfo[0] == 'iManufacturer':
                    manufacturer_info = ' '.join(categoryinfo[2:])
                    device_dict['manufacturer'] = manufacturer_info
                if categoryinfo[0] == 'iProduct':
                    device_info = ' '.join(categoryinfo[2:])
                    device_dict['device'] = device_info
            path = '/dev/bus/usb/%s/%s' % (bus, device)
            device_dict['path'] = path

            device_list.append(device_dict)
    except Exception as ex:
        print('Failed to list usb devices! Error: %s' % ex)
        sys.exit(-1)
    return device_list


if 'listpci' in option:
    pci_usb_list = create_pci_list()
    for device in pci_usb_list:
        print('path=%s' % device['path'])
        print('    manufacturer=%s' % device['SVendor'])
        print('    device=%s' % device['SDevice'])
        print('    search string=%s %s' % (device['SVendor'], device['SDevice']))
    sys.exit(0)

if 'list' in option:
    usb_list = create_usb_list()
    for device in usb_list:
        print('path=%s' % device['path'])
        print('    description=%s' % device['description'])
        print('    manufacturer=%s' % device['manufacturer'])
        print('    device=%s' % device['device'])
        print('    search string=%s %s %s' % (device['description'], device['manufacturer'], device['device']))
    sys.exit(0)

if len(sys.argv) < 3:
    print(instructions)
    sys.exit(0)

option2 = sys.argv[2]

print('Resetting device: %s' % option2)


# echo -n "0000:39:00.0" | tee /sys/bus/pci/drivers/xhci_hcd/unbind;echo -n "0000:39:00.0" | tee /sys/bus/pci/drivers/xhci_hcd/bind
def reset_pci_usb_device(dev_path):
    folder, slot = os.path.split(dev_path)
    try:
        fp = open(os.path.join(folder, 'unbind'), 'wt')
        fp.write(slot)
        fp.close()
        fp = open(os.path.join(folder, 'bind'), 'wt')
        fp.write(slot)
        fp.close()
        print('Successfully reset %s' % dev_path)
        sys.exit(0)
    except Exception as ex:
        print('Failed to reset device! Error: %s' % ex)
        sys.exit(-1)


if 'pathpci' in option:
    reset_pci_usb_device(option2)


if 'searchpci' in option:
    pci_usb_list = create_pci_list()
    for device in pci_usb_list:
        text = '%s %s' % (device['SVendor'], device['SDevice'])
        if option2 in text:
            reset_pci_usb_device(device['path'])
    print('Failed to find device!')
    sys.exit(-1)


def reset_usb_device(dev_path):
    USBDEVFS_RESET = 21780
    try:
        f = open(dev_path, 'w', os.O_WRONLY)
        fcntl.ioctl(f, USBDEVFS_RESET, 0)
        print('Successfully reset %s' % dev_path)
        sys.exit(0)
    except Exception as ex:
        print('Failed to reset device! Error: %s' % ex)
        sys.exit(-1)


if 'path' in option:
    reset_usb_device(option2)


if 'search' in option:
    usb_list = create_usb_list()
    for device in usb_list:
        text = '%s %s %s' % (device['description'], device['manufacturer'], device['device'])
        if option2 in text:
            reset_usb_device(device['path'])
    print('Failed to find device!')
    sys.exit(-1)
4
mcarans

我正在通过重新加载模块来使用大锤。这是我的usb_reset.sh脚本:

#!/bin/bash

# USB drivers
rmmod xhci_pci
rmmod ehci_pci

# uncomment if you have firewire
#rmmod ohci_pci

modprobe xhci_pci
modprobe ehci_pci

# uncomment if you have firewire
#modprobe ohci_pci

这是我的系统服务文件/usr/lib/systemd/system/usbreset.service,它在我的diplay管理器启动后运行usb_reset.sh:

[Unit]
Description=usbreset Service
After=gdm.service
Wants=gdm.service

[Service]
Type=oneshot
ExecStart=/path/to/usb_reset.sh
4

由于问题的特殊情况是gphoto2与USB上的摄像头的通信问题,gphoto2中有一个选项可以重置其USB连接:

gphoto2 --reset

也许这个选项在2010年提出问题时并不存在。

4
mviereck

我制作了一个python脚本,它将根据设备号重置特定的USB设备。您可以从命令lsusb中找到设备编号。

例如:

$ lsusb

Bus 002 Device 004: ID 046d:c312 Logitech, Inc. DeLuxe 250 Keyboard

在此字符串中,004是设备编号

import os
import argparse
import subprocess

path='/sys/bus/usb/devices/'

def runbash(cmd):
    p = subprocess.Popen(cmd, Shell=True, stdout=subprocess.PIPE)
    out = p.stdout.read().strip()
    return out

def reset_device(dev_num):
    sub_dirs = []
    for root, dirs, files in os.walk(path):
            for name in dirs:
                    sub_dirs.append(os.path.join(root, name))

    dev_found = 0
    for sub_dir in sub_dirs:
            if True == os.path.isfile(sub_dir+'/devnum'):
                    fd = open(sub_dir+'/devnum','r')
                    line = fd.readline()
                    if int(dev_num) == int(line):
                            print ('Your device is at: '+sub_dir)
                            dev_found = 1
                            break

                    fd.close()

    if dev_found == 1:
            reset_file = sub_dir+'/authorized'
            runbash('echo 0 > '+reset_file) 
            runbash('echo 1 > '+reset_file) 
            print ('Device reset successful')

    else:
            print ("No such device")

def main():
    parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
    parser.add_argument('-d', '--devnum', dest='devnum')
    args = parser.parse_args()

    if args.devnum is None:
            print('Usage:usb_reset.py -d <device_number> \nThe device    number can be obtained from lsusb command result')
            return

    reset_device(args.devnum)

if __name__=='__main__':
    main()
3
Raghu

最快的重置方法是重置USB控制器本身。这样做会强制udev在断开连接时取消注册设备,并在启用后重新注册。

echo -n "0000:00:1a.0" | tee /sys/bus/pci/drivers/ehci_hcd/unbind
echo -n "0000:00:1d.0" | tee /sys/bus/pci/drivers/ehci_hcd/unbind
echo -n "0000:00:1a.0" | tee /sys/bus/pci/drivers/ehci_hcd/bind
echo -n "0000:00:1d.0" | tee /sys/bus/pci/drivers/ehci_hcd/bind

这适用于大多数PC环境。但是,如果您使用的是某些自定义硬件,则可以简单地遍历设备名称。使用此方法,您无需通过lsusb找到设备名称。您也可以合并到自动脚本中。

3
chandank

以下是仅重置匹配产品/供应商ID的脚本。

#!/bin/bash

set -euo pipefail
IFS=$'\n\t'

VENDOR="045e"
PRODUCT="0719"

for DIR in $(find /sys/bus/usb/devices/ -maxdepth 1 -type l); do
  if [[ -f $DIR/idVendor && -f $DIR/idProduct &&
        $(cat $DIR/idVendor) == $VENDOR && $(cat $DIR/idProduct) == $PRODUCT ]]; then
    echo 0 > $DIR/authorized
    sleep 0.5
    echo 1 > $DIR/authorized
  fi
done
2
cmcginty

有时我想在特定设备上执行此操作,由VID(供应商ID)和PID(产品ID)标识。这是我发现用于此目的的脚本,它使用了漂亮的libusb库。

第一次运行:

Sudo apt-get install libusb-dev

然后,这个c ++文件的resetDeviceConnection应该执行此任务,重置由vid和pid标识的设备连接。

#include <libusb-1.0/libusb.h>

int resetDeviceConnection(UINT_16 vid, UINT_16 pid){
    /*Open libusb*/
    int resetStatus = 0;
    libusb_context * context;
    libusb_init(&context);

    libusb_device_handle * dev_handle = libusb_open_device_with_vid_pid(context,vid,pid);
    if (dev_handle == NULL){
      printf("usb resetting unsuccessful! No matching device found, or error encountered!\n");
      resetStatus = 1;
    }
    else{
      /*reset the device, if one was found*/
      resetStatus = libusb_reset_device(dev_handle);
    }
    /*exit libusb*/
    libusb_exit(context);
    return resetStatus;
}

(从我的个人TIL目录中窃取: https://github.com/Marviel/TIL/blob/master/unix_tools/Reset_specific_USB_Device.md

1
Marviel

有人订了一把大锤吗?这是从其他各种答案拼凑而成的。

#!/bin/bash

# Root required
if (( UID )); then
        exec Sudo "$0" "[email protected]"
fi

cd /sys/bus/pci/drivers

function reinit {(
        local d="$1"
        test -e "$d" || return

        rmmod "$d"

        cd "$d"

        for i in $(ls | grep :); do
                echo "$i" > unbind
        done

        sleep 1

        for i in $(ls | grep :); do
                echo "$i" > bind
        done

        modprobe "$d"

)}

for d in ?hci_???; do
        echo " - $d"
        reinit "$d"
done
1
Mark K Cowan

试试这个,这是一个软件拔出(弹出)。

有时不起作用只是取消绑定某些设备的设备。

例:

我想删除或弹出我的“Genius NetScroll 120”。

然后我首先检查我附加的USB设备

$ lsusb
Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
Bus 002 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
Bus 001 Device 002: ID 8087:0020 Intel Corp. Integrated Rate Matching Hub
Bus 002 Device 002: ID 8087:0020 Intel Corp. Integrated Rate Matching Hub
Bus 001 Device 003: ID 03f0:231d Hewlett-Packard 
Bus 001 Device 004: ID 138a:0007 Validity Sensors, Inc. VFS451 Fingerprint Reader
Bus 001 Device 005: ID 04f2:b163 Chicony Electronics Co., Ltd 
Bus 002 Device 009: ID 0458:003a KYE Systems Corp. (Mouse Systems) NetScroll+ Mini Traveler / Genius NetScroll 120  **<----This my Mouse! XDDD**

好的,我找到了我的鼠标,它有一个总线002,设备009,idVendor 0458和idProduct 003a,所以这是关于鼠标的参考设备信息。

这很重要,总线编号是设备的开始名称路径,我将检查产品ID和供应商,以确保删除正确的设备。

$ ls /sys/bus/usb/drivers/usb/
1-1/    1-1.1/  1-1.3/  1-1.5/  2-1/    2-1.3/  bind    uevent  unbind  usb1/   usb2/

关注文件夹,检查开头的文件夹编号2,我将检查这一个,因为我的总线是002,并逐一检查每个文件夹包含正确的idVendor和idProduct关于我的鼠标信息。

在这种情况下,我将使用此命令检索信息:

cat /sys/bus/usb/drivers/usb/2-1.3/idVendor
0458
cat /sys/bus/usb/drivers/usb/2-1.3/idProduct
003a

好的,路径/sys/bus/usb/drivers/usb/2-1.3/与我的信息鼠标匹配! XDDD。

是时候删除设备了!

su -c "echo 1 > /sys/bus/usb/drivers/usb/2-1.3/remove"

再次插入USB设备,它再次工作!

0
user242078

我做了一个简单的bash脚本来重置特定的USB设备。

#!/bin/bash
#type lsusb to find "vendor" and "product" ID in terminal
set -euo pipefail
IFS=$'\n\t'

#edit the below two lines of vendor and product values using lsusb result
dev=$(lsusb -t | grep usbdevicename | grep 'If 1' | cut -d' ' -f13|cut -d"," -f1)
#VENDOR=05a3
#PRODUCT=9230
VENDOR=$(lsusb -s $dev | cut -d' ' -f6 | cut -d: -f1)
PRODUCT=$(lsusb -s $dev | cut -d' ' -f6 | cut -d: -f2)

for DIR in $(find /sys/bus/usb/devices/ -maxdepth 1 -type l); do
  if [[ -f $DIR/idVendor && -f $DIR/idProduct &&
        $(cat $DIR/idVendor) == $VENDOR && $(cat $DIR/idProduct) == $PRODUCT ]]; then
    echo 0 > $DIR/authorized
    sleep 0.5
    echo 1 > $DIR/authorized
  fi
done
0
Thoht

如果您知道您的设备名称,那么python脚本将起作用:

#!/usr/bin/python
"""
USB Reset

Call as "usbreset.py <device_file_path>"

With device_file_path like "/dev/bus/usb/bus_number/device_number"
"""
import fcntl, sys, os

USBDEVFS_RESET = ord('U') << (4*2) | 20

def main():
    fd = os.open(sys.argv[1], os.O_WRONLY)
    if fd < 0: sys.exit(1)
    fcntl.ioctl(fd, USBDEVFS_RESET, 0)
    os.close(fd)
    sys.exit(0)
# end main

if __== '__main__':
    main()
0
Clay

也许这适用于相机:

在我身边的USB 3.0(kernel.org)Linux上恢复了一个饥饿的3.4.42硬盘。 dmesgname__告诉,它是在360s之后超时命令(对不起,我不能在这里复制系统日志,没有连接的网络)并且驱动器完全挂起。访问设备的进程在内核中被阻止,无法获取。 NFSname__挂起,ZFSname__挂起,ddname__挂起。

这样做之后,一切都恢复了。 dmesgname__只告诉了一行找到的USBname__设备。

我真的不知道以下详细介绍了什么。但它奏效了。

以下示例输出来自Debian Squeeze和2.6.32-5-686内核,因此我认为它适用于2.6及以上版本:

$ ls -al /dev/sdb
brw-rw---T 1 root floppy 8, 16 Jun  3 20:24 /dev/sdb

$ ls -al /sys/dev/block/8:16/device/rescan
--w------- 1 root root 4096 Jun  6 01:46 /sys/dev/block/8:16/device/rescan

$ echo 1 > /sys/dev/block/8:16/device/rescan

如果这不起作用,也许其他人可以弄清楚如何向设备发送真正的重置。

0
Tino